Humans are a peculiar species. On the one hand, our species has evolved and is part of the tree of life just like any other species. An understanding of humans would most certainly require an evolutionary perspective from such a stance. On the other hand, the remarkably cultural diversity observed in humans, combined with the apparent agency in decision-making, would suggest that such an evolutionary perspective is not essential. How to study humans evolutionary is therefore not straightforward, and indeed, there are several evolutionary approaches on offer in the study of human behaviour. In this talk, I’ll discuss the merits of these approaches, and apply them to reproductive behaviour in contemporary, industrialised populations.